The Internet of Things Stack
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) embodies functions in telecom and computing with respect internal structure and technologies. It is typically depicted in layers of a “stack” as follows:
- Application Layer
- Presentation Layer
- Session Layer
- Transport Layer
- Network Layer
- Data Link Layer
- Physical Layer
The above listing is presented from top to bottom, meaning that the physical layer is the bottom of the stack. Variations of the OSI model are used to depict protocols (such as SS7) and technologies. The same can be seen with the IoT Stack.
In our view, the IoT Stack has Business Value (less cost, more revenue, more offerings) at the top of the stack and “Things” themselves (devices, sensors, smart products, etc.) at the bottom, and various infrastructure elements in between.
Some of the more notable aspects of the IoT Stack include the following:
Data and Analytics software and applications will play a crucial role in making IoT a success. The data generated through sensors embedded in various things/objects will generate massive amounts of unstructured (big) data on real-time basis that holds the promise for intelligence and insights for dramatically improved decision processes. The evolution of automated processes due to IoT will accelerate this impact.
The Cloud supports storage of huge amounts of data gathered by IoT applications and also ensures real-time availability of data for further processing and analysis. Without the processing power and number crunching ability of Big Data and Analytics, the full potential of IoT would never be realized.
Embedded systems are critical in many industries and are found in large stationary installations (traffic lights, factory controllers, MRI machine, automobiles, etc.) as well as many modern consumer electronics and appliances such as watches, cell phones, microwaves, security systems, video entertainment systems (DVD player, console, set-top box), and more. Embedded systems will also be at the cornerstone for IoT deployment, especially within Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications.
IoT has the potential to become as silent, hidden, omnipresent, and essential to modern society. IoT will also have many access points and vulnerabilities. While initially hackers have been largely a nuisance, Mind Commerce anticipates that their intrusions will become increasingly dangerous, leading to the potential for operational disruption, industrial espionage, damage to enterprise assets, and even potential physical harm to human beings.